Chromosomes are truly huge swathes of DNA that have been compressed 1) in real life but also 2) on our chromosome depictions. While we can't tell you exactly what each chromosome does, per se, because one chromosome can have tens of thousands of genes, we can share the chromosome number corresponding to each of our traits and health conditions in their descriptions.
|1||MCFR||The propensity for shedding|
|3||3IGF1R||A gene that controls body size.|
|4||STC2, GHR (E195K), GHR (P177L)||More genes that affect body size|
|5||E Locus||Affects the recessive red coloration|
|10||EPAS1||Altitude Adaptation or how well a dog fares in high altitudes|
|11||B Locus||Creates liver coloring|
|12||DLA DRB1, DLA DQA1 and DQB1||Genetic diversity|
|13||RSPO2||Affects furnishings (the mustache and wire hairs commonly seen in Schnauzers and Poodles) versus improper coats|
|15||IGF1||Another gene that controls body size|
|16||K Locus||Determines dominant black|
|16||LMBR1||Determines if a dog will have dew claws|
|18||ALX4||The mutation associated with blue eyes|
|24||A Locus||Determines fawn, sable, or black-and-tan coloring|
|25||D Locus||Causes dilute|
For the most comprehensive collection of annotated genes and mutations, you can refer to the NCBI Canine Genome assembly (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/85). There’s more information from the NHGRI Dog Genome Project as well: https://research.nhgri.nih.gov/dog_genome/study_descriptions/study-genomics_dog_breeds.shtml.